## Hydraulic calculations for fire protection engineers

In this series of tutorials, we cover the basics of hydraulics calculations as it relates to fire protection engineering. It coves some of the more useful hydraulic formulas such as discharge from a sprinkler head ( K-Factor), Bernoulli's Theorem, Water Density and the pressure loss formula Hazen-Williams.

It is important for fire protection engineers and designers to understand the hydraulic calculations and analysis principles to be fully gain the benefits of using full hydraulic calculations in fire protection systems such as fire sprinklers, water mist and other types of water-based extinguishing systems.

## Bernoulli's Theorem: Explanation, Formula, and Applications

Bernoulli's Theorem is a fundamental principle in fluid dynamics that describes the relationship between the pressure and velocity of a fluid.

## Fire sprinkler hydraulic calculations and design density

One of the most important concepts in fire sprinkler design is the principle of design density, yet many fire sprinkler system design engineers do not fully understand the concept. This short instruction will hopefully full fill this requirement.

## Glossary of hydraulics for fire protection

A to Z of commonly used terms in fire sprinkler protection.

## Hazen-Williams equation for use in fire sprinkler systems

The Hazen-Williams equation is empirical and has long been used to calculate the friction loss in pipework for water-based fire sprinkler protection systems.

## How to hydraulic calculate a fire sprinkler system

This article, 'How to calculate a fire sprinkler system' for a simple tree system with three heads and three pipes, will demonstrate some of the basics you need to know and show you how to use the k-factor & Hazen-Williams equations.

## Hydrostatics and hydraulic calculations

Hydrostatics is a branch of hydraulics that deals with fluids at rest. As mentioned earlier, water is the most critical component of fire protection and hydraulic calculations so this section will look at the water at rest.

## K-Factor formula for fire sprinklers and water mist

In this article, we are looking at the flow of water through an orifice, and we will define the orifice as an opening (with a closed perimeter) in an element of a flow system. This orifice will be a fire sprinkler head or water mist nozzle in a fire protection system. We can use the k-factor formula for almost any rounded orifice.

## The Importance of Reynolds Number in Fluid Mechanics: A Closer Look at the Equation

Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with studying fluids and their behaviour under different conditions. One of the most fundamental concepts in fluid mechanics is Reynolds number, a dimensionless quantity that describes the flow of fluids in different systems. In simple terms, Reynolds number helps predict fluid flow transition from laminar to turbulent.

## Water as an fire extinguishing agent

Water is often the first choice for firefighters and emergency responders when putting out fires. But why is water such an effective fire-extinguishing agent? This article explores the science behind water's ability to quench flames and keep us safe.

## Water Velocity and limits for different design authorities

Some fire sprinkler design authorities and design standards, such as EN 12845, limit the velocity through pipes and valves in fire sprinkler systems.